Specific antimicrobial guidelines and clinical consensus on treating bacterial skin infections have been developed by the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID, iscaid.org) and the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD, wavd.org) to help veterinarians adequately diagnose and treat pyoderma, using judicious antimicrobial therapy to prevent bacterial resistance.1,2 To treat canine pyoderma successfully, it is important to recognize its clinical signs, confirm the infection, and identify and treat any underlying cause to help prevent pyoderma recurrence. Virbac South Africa: Canine Bacterial Pyoderma, Western Veterinary Conference: using Antibiotics Wisely for Pyoderma in the Age of Methicillin Resistance, Dr. Robert Hilton: Bacterial Infections of the Skin, Delaware Valley Academy of Veterinary Medicine: Tips for the Treatment of Canine Pyoderma. In very pruritic patients, a short (1—2 week) course of oral anti-inflammator… Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections (2): antimicrobial choice, treatment regimens and compliance. Oxford, UK: Blackwell; 2008:183-206. Gold RM, Lawhon SD. Staphylococcus aureus phage lysate is a vaccine indicated for the treatment of recurrent canine pyoderma and related Staphylococcal hypersensitivity, or polymicrobial skin infections with a Staphylococcal component. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. ), and sterile neutrophilic or eosinophilic pustulosis. bsava.com/Resources/Veterinary-resources/Position-statements/Responsible-use-of-antibacterials. Many diseases have the potential to predispose dogs to the development of superficial pyoderma. Many dermatologists first select cephalexin or cefadroxil for empiric treatment of superficial pyoderma, with the second choice typically being amoxicillin clavulanate. The clinical consensus guidelines of the WAVD state that empirical drug selection for systemic therapy is always contraindicated when a multidrug-resistant infection is suspected based on historical factors, due to the high prevalence of multidrug resistance within these strains. Very superficial or localized cases of canine pyoderma may be treated with topical antibacterial medications alone (Table 1). Poor nutrition, high stress levels and other general health factors can also leave your pet vulnerable to skin infections. Pyoderma is not an uncommon condition among dogs. Furthermore, Clavamox is penicillin based, so dogs with a history of allergies should take caution. are often present. Targeted antibiotics are administered to kill specific bacteria when the lab tests reveal the strain responsible for the infection. 7. Owner adherence to the recommended treatment regimen is crucial for treatment success and prevention of bacterial resistance. Superficial bacterial pyoderma is one of the most common disorders in the dog. 6. In dogs, superficial pyoderma is the most common form of pyoderma, and it is also the most common reason for antimicrobial use in small animal practice. Six dogs already had been used to establish the canine model of superficial pyoderma. The need for this test has increased with the emergence of MDR infections in veterinary medicine. (B) Same dog with complete resolution of the pyoderma after topical therapy. It is very important to educate pet owners about how to correctly apply topical therapy and maintain the correct schedule for the recommended duration. General or "broad spectrum" antibiotics, like cephalosporins, are prescribed when the bacterial agent is unknown or if it does not respond to other medication. Skin Fold Dermatitis (Intertrigo) in Dogs, Canine Atopic Dermatitis: Updates on Diagnosis and Treatment. Dr. Koch is passionate about comparative dermatology and absolutely enjoys clinical service and teaching. Using the correct dose, frequency of administration, and duration of antimicrobials is crucial for a successful outcome when treating any infection. Your vet may instruct you to apply antiseptic to the infected area or recommend a bathing routine, depending on the location of the lesions. Vets tend to label pyoderma as either “superficial” or “deep.” Again, no great mystery here. References Straining to Eliminate: First Aid. Potentiated sulfonamides are often efficacious against S pseudintermedius; however, they can have many side effects (e.g., hypothyroidism, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, hypersensitivity reaction in certain breeds), especially when given for a long period of time. bsava.com/Resources/Veterinary-resources/Position-statements/Responsible-use-of-antibacterials. Reduced systemic antimicrobial use or duration. Superficial staphylococcal pyoderma is a common diagnosis in companion animal practice. Other less commonly identified gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus epidermitis, and Streptococcus species. Skin infections associated with significant inflammation may benefit from short, limited courses of topicals containing glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone, betamethasone, mometasone, or triamcinolone; however, care should be taken with these products, as chronic use of topical glucocorticoids can induce adverse cutaneous reactions (e.g., atrophic skin, wounds). Follow his recommendations for managing other ailments as you continue to administer the prescribed treatment for your pet's pyoderma. In Pract 2014;36(3):106-118. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases). 1. 8. Quentin Coleman has written for various publications, including All Pet News and Safe to Work Australia. Vet Dermatol 2014;25(3):163-175. When an MRS expresses resistance to at least 2 additional antimicrobial classes, it is also referred to as MDR. Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections (2): antimicrobial choice, treatment regimens and compliance. Generalized pemphigus foliaceus mimicking superficial pyoderma in a dog. Otherwise, antimicrobial selection should always be based on results of culture and susceptibility testing. If pustules are not present, samples may be collected from exudate beneath crusts, epidermal collarettes, and, if needed, from papules (by rupturing the papules with a 22-gauge needle). The author usually considers clindamycin or doxycycline as the first choices for second-tier antimicrobials for MDR or MRS cases, based on their efficacy for these infections and their safety profile. 3. 3. Patients with pyoderma should always be reevaluated by the veterinarian, who should not rely solely on the owner’s perception to determine if the bacterial infection has resolved. Topical therapy can be effective alone, particularly in cases of mild to moderate infection (Figure 6), but it can also assist in more rapid resolution of lesions and reduce the duration of systemic antimicrobial use. Vets often supplement systemic antibiotics with ointments and shampoos to expedite recovery. Specific antimicrobial guidelines and clinical consensus on treating bacterial skin infections have been developed by the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases (ISCAID. ) A contact time of at least 5 to 10 minutes is important for optimal efficacy of antimicrobial shampoos. Hillier A, Lloyd DH, Weese JS, et al. Beco L, Guaguère E, Méndez CL, et al. It is important that the right antibacterial agent is chosen. Dogs with superficial pyoderma should be bathed with a shampoo recommended by its veterinarian. Pyoderma, or skin infections, can be due to bacteria or fungal organisms and are often set up by damage to the skin barrier. The term. Before antimicrobials are administered, the diagnosis of superficial pyoderma needs to be supported by cytologic findings demonstrating coccoid bacteria, often associated with inflammatory cells (typically degenerate neutrophils) and, when present, bacteria phagocytosis (Figure 5). Pyoderma , which literally means “pus in the skin,” is a common issue in dogs and less common in cats. Pyoderma in Dogs and Cats. Historically, rifampin was used in combination with other antimicrobials (e.g., doxycycline) due to concern with development of fast resistance; however, polyantimicrobial systemic therapy should be avoided due to potential for more resistance. Vet Dermatol 2017;28(3):304-e69. The basic principles of successful systemic antimicrobial therapy include proper antimicrobial selection, establishment of an effective dosage, and long enough duration of treatment to ensure complete resolution of the infection. Deep pyoderma is also relatively common in the dog. Chloramphenicol and rifampin can be used safely in most dogs; however, close monitoring for potential aplastic anemia and liver toxicity, respectively, is needed. Mucocutaneous pyoderma is considered a surface condition, so topical treatments can be applied to most or all of the affected area. Six dogs experienced vomiting or diarrhoea but did not require discontinuation of the treatment. A Suicide Support Resource for Veterinary Workplaces. Deep Pyoderma is usually preceded by superficial pyoderma if it had not been managed effectively. Subsequently, she obtained her master’s degree and completed her residency in veterinary dermatology at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. To avoid the side effects of commercial drugs, you can always use coconut oil and apple cider vinegar to clear bacterial infections in dogs. The areas around the infection will be shaved in order to get a better idea of the damage, as well as to allow better absorption of topical medications, typically followed by a full body cleansing with an antibacterial shampoo formulated with medications for dogs such as Benzoyl peroxide or chlorhexidine, which must remain on the skin for at least ten minutes before rinsing for full effectiveness. British Veterinary Association. When a systemic antibiotic is needed, selection of one with the narrowest spectrum of activity possible will minimize the selection of resistant organisms.4. To prevent frequent recurrence of superficial pyoderma, it is crucial to try to identify and control the underlying primary disease (e.g., allergy, endocrinopathy) that typically predisposes dogs to pyoderma. To prevent frequent recurrence of superficial pyoderma, it is crucial to try to identify and control the underlying primary disease (e.g., allergy, endocrinopathy) that typically predisposes dogs to pyoderma. Incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs. The most commonly used antibiotics include cepahlexin, Clavulanic acid-amoxicillin (Clavamox), Clindamycin, and Cefovecin injectable (Convenia). Guide to Antimicrobial Use in Animals. 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